What is Stem Cell?
STEM CELLS ARE DEFINED AS CELL WITH THE UNIQUE capacity to self-replicate throughout the entire life of an organism and to differentiate into cells of various tissues. Most cells of the body are specialized and play a well-defined role in the body. For example, brain cells respond to electrical signals from other brain cells and release neurotransmitter, cells of the retina are activated by light and pancreatic ß-cells produce insulin. These cells, called somatic cells, will never differentiate into other types of cells or even proliferate. By contrast, stem cells are primitive cells that remain undifferentiated until they receive a signal prompting them to become various types of specialized cells.
Generally speaking, there are two types of stem cells:
Embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells.
Embryonic stem cells are cells extracted from the blastula, the very early embryo, while adult stem cells are stem cells found in the body after birth. The term “adult stem cells” does not refer to a characteristic associated with adult-hood, but rather a contrast with the developing embryo. Stem cells in the bone marrow of a new-born baby, for example, or even stem cells found in the umbilical cord are referred to as adult stem cells.
Embryonic Stem Cells
Embryonic (ESC) are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastula, the very early embryo.
ESC are said to be pluripotent, meaning that they can be virtually any type of cell, which is obvious since from these cells will develop an entire human being. In nature, ESC is very short-lived, as they only exist in the early embryo. As ESC develop and commit them to becoming the various cell types of the developing fetus, they gradually lose their pluripotency. When cultured in vitro, however, ESC can be maintained and can proliferate almost eternally.
ADULT STEM CELLS
THE POTENTIAL OF ADULT STEM CELLS
Today we know that Adult Stem Cells (ASC) or primitive cells that can be self-renew and can differentiate into specialized cells of various tissues. Though ASC are most predominantly found in the bone marrow, they can also be isolated from various tissues such as the liver, the intestine, the muscles, the brain, as well as blood and many other tissues.
The role of ASC found in tissues is to maintain and repair the tissues in which they are found, though local cells appear to be involved only in relatively minor repair of the tissues in which they reside. In case of major injury or degeneration, the need for stem cells far exceeds the number of stem cells available in the tissues, and stem cells from the bone marrow (BMSC) are called to contribute to the repair process.
Bone Marrow and Stem Cells
Bone Marrow Stem Cells (BMSC) have traditionally been considered to have little potential for plasticity, being limited in their development to red blood cells, lymphocytes, platelets, bone and connective tissues. However much scientific work has been published over the past few years demonstrating the exceptional plasticity of BMSC. After transplanting, bone marrow and enriched hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) were shown to have the ability to become muscle cells, heart cells, endothelium capillary cells, lever cells, lung, gut and skin cells, as well as neural cells.
Many think that the bone is a solid structure with very little blood circulation - basically nothing more than a lifeless deposit of calcium. This is hardly the case. Bones are very much alive, with significant blood circulation. Given the importance of the bone marrow as the source of stem cells, it is pertinent to briefly describe what bone marrow is: (refer to Bone marrow morphology)
There are two type of bone structure: compact and spongy. These two bone structures differ in density and in how tightly the bone tissues are organized. The strength of a bone comes from the amount and density of compact bone. The blood circulation and the “life” of a bone are found in the spongy bone. This is where the bone marrow is located - in small cavities within the spongy bone.
In children, the bones contain only red marrow. However, as the skeleton matures, fat-storing yellow marrow displaces red marrow in the shafts of the long bones of the limps. In adults, red marrow remains chiefly in the ribs, the vertebrae, the pelvic bones and the skull. It is in the red marrow that the stem cells are produced, so the transformation of red marrow into yellow marrow explains the decline in stem cells production with age. The frequency of stem cells in the bone marrow has been estimated to be around 1 in 10,000 marrow cells, for an estimate total of approximately 150 million stem cells.
Stem Cells Renewal Theory
ASC are well known for their role in the constant renewal of blood cells (red blood cell, lymphocytes and platelets) and the regeneration of bone, ligament, tendons and connective tissues. But until recently it was believed that this was the extent of their ability to become other types of cell.
A system is a tissue or organ or a set of tissues and organs comprised of specific cells that accomplish specific tasks affecting other organs and tissues, aimed at supporting the health and survival of the whole organism.
For example, the cardiovascular system is comprised of the heart and its task is to pump blood in order to deliver nutrients and oxygen to every cell of the body. The digestive system is comprised of the stomach and intestine and its task is to digest food into absorbable nutrients in order to feed every cell of the body. The endocrine system is comprised of several organs whose task is to secrete compounds called hormones that modulate the functioning of other organs and tissues. For example, the pancreas secretes insulin that allows the transport of glucose into cells, and the thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones that stimulate body metabolism. Regarding stem cells, we have the bone marrow that secretes cells that travel and migrate into damaged tissues, restoring optimal functioning.
Science has discovered the renewal system of the body!
In this whole process, the number of stem cells circulating in the blood stream appears to be the most important factor. When the level of circulating stem cells was measured in the blood stream of individuals who suffered an injury, the individuals who had the largest number of stem cells on the day of their injury showed the fastest and greatest recovery.
This AFA concentrate is the first natural stem cell enhancer available in the marketplace. By supporting the release of stem cells from the bone it provides for mild and safe daily support of stem cells physiology. Supporting stem cell physiology is a new paradigm in health and wellness, and much scientific evidence indicates that this may very well be the best strategy to assist the body in maintaining optional health.
copyright 2023 no animals were harmed in the making
Bone marrow morphology
The Stem Cell Theory of Renewal - by: Christian Drapeau, Msc.
When stem cells are placed in a semi-permeable well with pores large enough to let molecules pass through but small enough to prevent the passage of cells, exposure to damaged liver tissue leads to the transformation of the stem cells into liver cells. Molecules secreted by the injured tissue, which are specific for that tissue, reach the stem cells and trigger the process of differentiation. Differentiation of a stem cell into a specific cell type is triggered by contact with molecules specific to that tissue..